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File:Kaaba at night.jpg|thumb|250px||The Kaaba in Mecca is the Qibla|direction of prayer and destination of pilgrimage for Muslims all over the world. '''Islam''' (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). , '''' ;: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. Thhttp://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/uoc/PDF-FILES/(2)%20The%20Significant%20Role%20of%20Sufism%20in%20Central%20Asia%20(Dr.%20Farh.pdfe first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress (linguistics)|stress or lengthened vowels.) is a religion articulated by the...
Doi10.1086/353360 | last1 = King | first1 = David A. | year = 1983 | title = The Astronomy of the Mamluks | url = | journal = Isis | volume = 74 | issue = | pages = 531–555 | ref = harv }}{{cite encyclopedia |last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |title=Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/articles/articles%208.html |encyclopedia=Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, August 1–5, 1994 |editor=Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas |publisher=International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC)|date=1996 |pages=351–399 | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402150434/http://www.history-science-technology.com/articles/articles%208.html |archivedate=2 April 2015}} The Spread of Islam|expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and List of Muslim empires and dynasties|empires, traders and conversion to Islam by Islamic missionary activity|missionary activities.The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg.125-258
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